Critical infrastructure facilities such as water supply systems, power grids or critical manufacturing facilities contain a variety of vulnerable elements ranging from standard IT components such as networking equipment or e-mail servers to industry-specific process control systems and ICS (industrial control systems) and to highly specialized SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) components tightly coupled to electro-mechanical equipment on site at the attacked facilities. In every operational scenario, the defender’s challenge in protecting critical infrastructure from cyber threats is particularly complex in the ever-evolving landscape of modern cyber threats. An effective defense solution requires multidisciplinary expertise, combining general cyber defense capabilities with an understanding of the industry-specific work process and industry-specific systems and protocols.
Modern strategic concepts regard cyber as the fifth warfare domain (along with land, sea, air, and space). One aspect of cyberwar is neutralizing the adversary's mission-critical systems (MCS) which it needs to win a conflict such as weapon systems, C2 arrays and communication systems. Preparing a country to mitigate the ever-evolving cyber challenges to its mission-critical systems is a complex process that requires continuous attention, resources, and know-how.
In the current reality of cybersecurity, airports worldwide are exposed and vulnerable to a broad spectrum of threats by various actors ranging from script kiddies, through crime organizations, all the way to terrorist organizations and nation-states. The objectives of the attack could be anything from mischief (causing public embarrassment to the airport operator), through fraud, ransomware and service theft, to a major denial of service attack or triggering a catastrophic chain of events on the ground or in-flight. A typical airport contains a plethora of technological systems as diverse as ATC, baggage handling, ticketing and aircraft apron systems, with different levels of exposure to cyber threats. The airports’ ecosystem contains many legacy systems and is strictly regulated by governments and international organizations. In this constrained reality, the senior leadership of an airport faces a difficult challenge defining an effective cybersecurity strategy for their organization.
Seaports and carriers are an essential component of a country's economy. Many counties rely on their seaports business continuity and effective operation. Therefore this segment is often targeted by adversaries and crime organizations. Since seaports and commercial ships have a lot of legacy systems both IT and OT, from surveillance cameras and inspection equipment to giant cranes, communications and sea radars, they are vulnerable to generic attacks, moreover to APTs. (Advanced persistent threats).
Smart cities relay on IoT for almost anything, from an array of cameras to smart traffic lights, and from smart roads to inspection systems. IoT devices are known for being very vulnerable and ample of cyber events already demonstrated this, worldwide. Understanding the cyber posture of a smart city's array of IoT devices and putting in place the right protection systems and processes is a fundamental obligation of its leaders to keep the city safe and the privacy of its citizens private.